History of Sikhism in Punjab: Sikhism originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region. There is a peculiar symbolism here - on the one hand, the history of this village is associated with the growth of Sikhism, a religion that elevated Punjabi to the status of a divine language, and on the other, the area now hosts the head office of a school that has deemed Punjabi to be a "foul language". Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is said that from Sanskrit originated Prakrit, whence the Aprabhramsa language. Omissions? Learn more about the history and culture of Punjab … Sikhs are followers of Sikhism religion. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. It is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution. Literature in the Punjabi language is published in India and Pakistan, and in many countries of Europe, North America, and Southeast Asia wherever Punjabi diaspora have settled in large numbers. Phonetically, the most prominent distinctive feature of standard Punjabi is the realization of historical voiced aspiration as tones, so that, for example, Hindi-Urdu ghora ‘horse’ appears in Punjabi as k’òra (with glottal constriction and low-rising tone) and Hindi-Urdu rah ‘way’ as Punjabi rá (with high-falling tone). There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008. There are also important overseas communities of Punjabi speakers, particularly in Canada and the United Kingdom—where in the early 21st century they respectively constituted the third and fourth largest linguistic groups in the national populations—as well as in several parts of the United States. The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 along religious lines was marked by particular violence in Punjab, where ethnic cleansing and exchange of populations resulted in the expulsion of most Punjabi-speaking Muslims from India and of Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan. Since Pakistan’s Punjab is much larger and less homogeneous than its Indian counterpart, its internal linguistic variety has also encouraged opposition to the Punjabi activists based in the provincial capital of Lahore by rival groups based in the less prosperous outlying areas of the province, notably by the proponents of Siraiki in the southwestern districts, whose claims to separate linguistic status are vigorously disputed by adherents to the Punjabi cause. We keep on adding new and unique content which make users visit back over and over again. In spite of Punjabi’s very large numbers of speakers and rich traditions of popular poetry, the standardization of the language was historically inhibited by lack of official recognition as well as by the different cultural preferences of the three main local religious communities of Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardized during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru. booksbylanguage_punjabi Mediatype collection Publicdate 2018-11-06 02:07:51 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.8.1 Search_collection mediatype:texts AND language:(punjabi OR pun) Title Punjabi : Books by Language This officially recognized Indian Punjabi is generally taken as standard in descriptions of the language. Two scripts are used for Punjabi writing –  Gurmukhi script is used in India by Sikhs and Hindus, whereas Shahmukhi script is largely used in Pakistan by Muslim Punjabi. Punjabi language, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. There are various particles that are used in the Punjabi sentences for emphasis and negation. Punjabi nouns have an assigned gender and they can be either masculine or feminine though some nouns can be used for both the genders due to dialectical variations. The Pakistanis rely mostly on Farsi and Urdu’s influence with the Shahmukhi script. Punjab means PUNJ-AAB i.e. In Pakistan Punjabi is spoken by some 70 million speakers, mostly in Punjab province, but official status at both the national and the provincial level is reserved for Urdu. Punjab - Punjab - History: The foundations of the present Punjab were laid by Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit who became a military leader and, with his fighting band of Sikhs, temporarily liberated the eastern part of the province from Mughal rule in 1709–10. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language.It is the first language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 11th most widely spoken language in the world. In India, Punjabi is spoken as a native language by 3% of the population. Suggested Read: Punjab – Culture, and Tradition. Punjabi can be categorized as Western Punjabi and Eastern Punjabi. It is the most widely spoken native language in Pakistan. Over 93% of people who speak Punjabi as their first language live in Pakistan and India. Dharam Kammeyana at Punjabi language Poets' Meet organised on occasion of Republic Day (India) 2020 02Punjabi language Poets' Meet on occasion of Republic Day (India) 2020 03.jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 3.45 MB The neighbouring Balochi poetry consists largely of ballads and religious folk…, In addition to Urdu and Punjabi, other languages claimed as mother tongues include Sindhi, Pashto, Siraiki, Balochi, and Brahui.…. In Pakistan the general maintenance of the historical preference for Urdu has stood in the way of those who looked to achieve an increased status for Punjabi, albeit in a form more obviously influenced in its script and vocabulary by Urdu and so itself somewhat different from standard Indian Punjabi. History of the Punjabi Language. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. The Punjabi language has emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. History of Punjabi Language. It was Sauraseni Apabhramsa that gave birth to Punjabi and was also the mother of the saint’s language, known as sant-bhasa. In India, Punjabi is written in the distinctive Gurmukhi script, which is particularly associated with the Sikhs. RitiRiwaz.com is your one stop guide to the Indian Culture and Traditions. The Punjabi language has homonyms. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Punjabi-language. She had a passion for writing about India's lifestyle, culture, tradition, travel, and is trying to cover all Indian Cultural aspects of Daily Life. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru,” Shahmukhi translates to “from King’s mouth” and Devanagri implies “The container of divine light.”. In the villages of Punjab, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language. The Urdu script, written from right to left, is used for writing Punjabi in Pakistan, where it is nowadays often given the imitative name Shahmukhi. Punjabi is the native language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. by Durlabh Singh. Punjab … There are four main types of particles – emphatic, negative, honorific, and vocative. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi. Sikhism is founded by Guru Nanak Dev which started in Punjab region of Pakistan today. Punjab faced the brunt of Moghul invaders during the middle ages. All Rights Reserved. Land of five rivers. Eastern Punjabi remained independently as what is Punjabi today. Guru Nanak, who lived between 1469 and 1539, was the founder of the Sikh religion and he gave a new impetus to the Punjabi language. The key dialects of Punjabi in India include Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, and Powadhi that have regional Hindi/Sanskrit influence on the main Punjabi language. These came to be counted later almost as separate languages. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other co… So the meaning of five water is literally known as the land of five rivers. The Punjabi Language is mainly spoken by Sikhs. They are personal, reflexive, demonstrative, indefinite, relative, and interrogative. They are words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but with different meanings and usually different parts of speech. #JAPJISAHIB It is the sacred hymn by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Like nouns, the verbs have two genders – masculine and feminine, and two number forms that are singular and plural. Punjabi is the language, which was used by the Sikh Gurus. Copyright © 2014-2020 RitiRiwaz.com. Punjab has a long history and rich cultural heritage. There are the usual conflicting claims to the great writers of the past, but all devotees of the Punjabi literary tradition, in both India and Pakistan, find the supreme expression of their shared cultural identity in the rich expression of the Muslim poet Waris (or Varis) Shah’s great romance Hir (1766; also spelled Heer). Punjabi emerged as a distinct language in the 12th century as the Punjab region began to coalesce as a distinct culture, producing its own poetry and other writings in the new language. It is spoken as a first language by over 44% of Pakistanis. Punjabi also spelled as Panjabi is one of the Indo-Aryan language and the official language of Punjab state, and is widely spoken and written in all it’s neighboring and a few other states. Whereas the Muslims had strongly identified with Urdu and the Hindus with Hindi, it was the Sikhs who had particularly identified with the Punjabi cause. Postpositions are similar to the prepositions in English. After the British took over Punjab, the Hindi language gained prominence in Punjab. It is a Sikh dominated language spoken by approximately 90 million people, making it the 11th most commonly spoken language in the world. Before the partition of India in 1947, Punjab was a large state in British … One State: Two Countries. In Pakistan, the regional Sindhi language influences the main Punjabi language resulting in dialects such as Majhi, Pothohari, Hindko, and Multani. In the middle ages the Punjabi culture was limited to an individual’s community, caste and village. Punjab, state of India, located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. The nouns also can be singular or plural. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. Keep Reading Punjabi Books Books are the quietest and most constant of friends; they are the most accessible and wisest of counselors, and the most patient of … Therefore, the word Punjab means five waters, and is thought of as “the land of five rivers”. They link the noun and the pronoun to other parts of the sentence. We provide you with the information on various aspects of the great Indian culture and its diversity. The Punjabi language is written using two systems: Shahmukhi — a Perso-Arabic alphabet ( ست سِری اَکال), and Gurmukhi — a modified Sikh script (ਸਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਕਾਲ।). The Punjabi language has emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. Simmi Kamboj is the Founder and Administrator of Ritiriwaz, your one-stop guide to Indian Culture and Tradition. The verbs take form for future tense only and an auxiliary verb form is used for the present and the past tense. The word ‘Punj’ means Five and ab mean water. Punjabi Language | Punjabi History and Facts. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. The assignment of gender to inanimate objects is arbitrary. Emeritus Professor of Modern Languages of South Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. As Punjabi is the official language of Punjab, it gets the name from the … Punjabi is a descendent of a language of northern India called Shauraseni. Western Punjabi broke up into Saraiki, Potwari, and Hindko. The verbs can be in perfect or non-perfect forms. Many ancient Sufi mystics and later Guru Nanak Dev ji, the first Guru of the Sikhism started the literary tradition in Punjabi. The gender value is purely grammatical for inanimate objects. The fifth Guru, Arjun Dev, 1563-1606, compiled the Sikh scripture, the `Adi Grantha’, or the `Grantha Saheb’ in Punjabi. So although the linguistic frontier is very well defined to the…, …Indus Valley, for example, and Punjabi in the Punjab are languages rich in an emotional poetry that uses popular metres and forms. Author of, Siraiki language: Siraiki, Punjabi, and Sindhi. The Connecting Language. In Canada it is the 4 th most spoken language. In most other Indo-Aryan-speaking areas of South Asia, the modern period saw overlapping local dialects being grouped into strictly defined provincial languages, but this process has taken much longer to happen in Punjab. Grammar Punjabi has three typical tones that developed from the lost voiced aspirate series of consonants. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Ambala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Bathinda and Delhi. Punjabi is the language of Punjab, the land of the five rivers. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The people of the Punjab are called Punjabis and they speak a language called Punjabi. The Gurmukhi script was first used to record the Sikh scriptures, the Adi Granth, in 1604. Punjabi language, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. Demography and Geography of Punjabi Language “Punjab” is a combination of two Persian words, “Punj” meaning five and “ab” (Pronounced Aab) meaning water. As is generally the case with such disputes about language identity, the arguments are based only partly on purely linguistic factors, since they also relate to broader historical and cultural understandings. Furthermore, Sikh writers were mainly responsible for developing Punjabi as a modern standard language, and the Sikh political leadership in 1966 finally achieved the goal of an albeit truncated state with Punjabi as its official language. The language itself is spoken all over the world by about 100 to 150 million people. Punjab in its present state came into existence on November 1, 1966, when most of its predominantly Hindi-speaking areas were separated to form the new state of Haryana. A typical Punjabi noun can have on an average of five to six different forms depending on the values of number and case. Phonetically, the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can spread over more than one syllable. Baba Sheikh Farid is known as the first poet of Punjabi language The earliest traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of Nath Yogis, Gorakshanath, and Charpatnath in the ninth century. Around 75% of the Sikh population of the world is living in Punjab. A successor of Sauraseni Prakrit, the chief language of medieval northern India, Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century from the Sauraseni Apabhramsa. At the Indo-Iranian border the oldest fragments of the powerful Pashto poetry date from the Middle Ages. There is a significant degree of mutual intelligibility with Hindi and Urdu, although the three languages are sharply differentiated by their scripts, and Punjabi is historically distinguished by its retention of Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) doubled consonants following a short vowel, so that Sanskrit akshi ‘eye’ becomes MIA akkhi and Punjabi akkh, versus Hindi-Urdu aankh. The Hindus too with their reform movements like Arya Samaj and Sanatan Dharma gave importance to Hindi. Most of the people who speak this language live in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India Punjabi is the religious language of the Sikhs. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Punjabi is the official language of Punjab, the state of India. The Punjabi language is a descendent of the Shauraseni Prakrit, a language of medieval northern India that was used primarily in drama and plays during the 3rd to 10th centuries. The script is Gurmukhi based on Devanagri. That script is a member of the Indic family of scripts, written from left to right, but in its organization it differs significantly from the Devanagari used to write Hindi. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Punjabi is an ancient language, but like Punjabi, started its literary career pretty late. The verbs also take forms for three-person cases – first, second, and third-person categories. Punjabi is thus today one of the very few languages in the world to be written in two quite different and mutually unintelligible scripts. Classical Sanskrit evolved from the Vedic is the main source of Punjabi vocabulary and Sauraseni Prakrit is nearest to Classical Sanskrit. Pakistani Punjabi also has Persian, Central Asian, and Arabic vocabulary influences. The old British spelling “Punjabi” remains in more common general usage than the academically precise “Panjabi.” In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. To write Punjabi, one can use three alphabets – namely, Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi, and Devanagri to a lesser extent. During these middle ages, the Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the Punjabi language. Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. In Punjabi, there are six types of pronouns. PUNJABI 2. Globally, Punjabi language is spoken by more than 100 million people and is the 10th most spoken language in the world, with the majority of its speakers in India and Pakistan. Therefore the characteristics of Sanskrit, Prakrit and Aprabhramsa can be found in the P language. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. Baba Sheikh Farid is known as the first poet of Punjabi language The earliest traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of Nath Yogis, Gorakshanath, and Charpatnath in the ninth century. Punjabi verbs change forms for gender, number, person, tense, and phase. A person who resides in the region of Punjab and is also a speaker of the Punjabi language is considered a Punjabi. It evolved out of the Apabhramsa of the region. As is generally the case with such disputes about language identity, the arguments are based only partly on purely linguistic factors, since... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. PUNJABI LANGUAGE 1. The word Punjab is made with two words Punj and ab. Since the partition of Punjab in 1947, Punjabi that is spoken in both Pakistan and India has drifted apart from each other. “The Vedic language has been called the oldest Punjabi, because it is nearer to Punjabi than Hindi. Download free copy of ‘Japji Sahib’ in Punjabi and English There are many people in other states of India, as Haryana, Rajasthan and Jammu & Kashmir, who speak Punjabi as their mother tongue. The old British spelling “Punjabi” remains in more common general usage than the academically precise “Panjabi.”. The early Punjabi literature has had a very rich oral tradition and was principally spiritual in nature.Muslim Sufi, Sikh and Hindu writers composed many works in Punjabi between 1600 and 1850. In Pakistan, Punjabi is spoken by about one-half of all households. Punjabis have been known to have inhabited the Indus Valley as far back as 2500 BC. Punjabi adjectives can be classified into two categories – inflected and uninflected depending upon whether they change forms for number or case or not. It is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. It is the youngest religion in major religions. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of historical Punjab - both in Pakistan as well as in India. Punjabi developed a written literature later than most of the other regional languages of the Indian subcontinent, and some writings from its early centuries, such as those of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak (1469–1539), are in Old Hindi rather than true Punjabi. These five rivers are known as Sutlej, Beas, Jhelum, Ravi & Chenab which are the tributaries of the Indus River. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru” and comes from the Old Punjabi word guramukhī. Other languages were cultivated for most kinds of writing, including Persian under the Mughal Empire, then Urdu during the British period and, in Pakistan, continuing to the present day. There are two cases – direct and oblique and this applies to almost all the nouns. The grammar of the Punjabi language is the study of the word order, case marking, and other morphological structures. This was about 33 million in 2011. Most of the people who speak this language live in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.It is also widely spoken in Haryana, India Himachal Pradesh, India and Delhi, India.It is spoken by the majority of the population of Pakistan. Punjabi literature, body of writing in the Punjabi language. The Indians rely heavily on Sanskrit vocabulary through Hindi. Baba Bulleh Shah was the most famous Punjabi Sufi poet who put Saraiki language culture into the Punjabi Language. Updates? Write Punjabi, because it is the study of the Apabhramsa of the languages by. By approximately 90 million people in India, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one can three... The Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the world by about one-half of all.. 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