– George R. Terry, “Authority means the Power to command others- to act or not to act in a manner deemed fit by the possessor of the authority and is exercised in furtherance of the enterprise or departmental purpose”. The responsibility expected for a position should be commensurate with the authority delegated to that position, and vice-versa. The term responsibility has been interpreted in two different ways. Authority is a formal or institutionalized form of power vested in a position or office. Responsibility is derived from function which is the origin for relationship. As project managers, we encounter so many things that can frustrate us and affect us even though they are beyond our control. A formal organization is a system of well defined jobs, each bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility and accountability. If bank officers decide to meet every Saturday evening for two hours and form a recreation club to play games outside the bank, they are meeting in an informal organization. But compliance of actions and carrying out of instructions by subordinates cannot always be assured merely because the authority is customarily accepted. Performance evaluations and fitness reports should be based on which of the following factors? Senior citizens are willingly offered seats in crowded buses and trains; no one minds their jump­ing the queue to visit a doctor, or to withdraw money from bank. It can be acquired through persuasion, sanction, coercion, constraints or force. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. For this reason they cannot be held accountable for failure or deficiency of performance. Thus, union leaders of an organization may select a relatively junior worker to present their case before the top management for increase in salaries because they feel he is forceful and logical in arguing the case and has at his command well-documented evidence to support his viewpoint. They follow the leader because, according to their per­ception, he articulates their feelings and aspirations. Shareholders of a company appoint directors and delegate to them authority to manage the affairs of the company. In management science authority, responsibility and accountability are three terms around which the whole set of managerial activities cluster. They need proper consideration while introducing delegation of authority within an Organisation. To sum up in literal terms if authority is a body then power is the means and responsibility is the state of handeling the power Share Your PPT File, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Meaning, Definition and Characteristics of Authority and Responsibility in Management, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Nature, Definition and Source, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Concept and Relationship between Authority and Responsibility in Management. In other words required amount of authority should be delegated to discharge responsibility. Only a per­son holding authority—legal, traditional or competence—can assign task or responsibility. Through legal process, they delegate this authority to Board of directors elected/selected by them. 3. Authority is never absolute like responsibility. Authority, Responsibility and Accountability are Inter-related. Assignment of a task or responsibility casts a duty to perform something. “Duty” or “responsibility” refers to an obligation or liability for performance of a task or responsibility that is assigned. It is the liability for proper discharge of duties. ... each able to act directly on behalf of the people with the authority granted to it. Therefore, it is said that authority is delegated, responsibility is created and accountability is imposed. It’s equally important to make the distinction early on in the project regarding authority and responsibility. Learn about the meaning, definition, concept, relationship of authority and responsibility in management. It is a relationship between two individuals—one of them superior, and the other a subordinate. Authority and right to command helps the manager get work done by others in the organization and the degree of authority goes on descending down the line. This will better the performance of the organization to deliver goods to the public. It is only through authority, a manager exercises control. Some state constitutions explicitly guarantee equal rights for men and women. Delegation of authority from a manager to a subordinate is in proportion to the nature of tasks and responsibility assigned to the subordinate. If the subordinate ably and willingly accept to perform the assigned tasks or responsibility, and performs it in the manner desired by the manager, he can rest content that his authority enjoys acceptance. Securing compliance or obedience is the main objective behind the whole concept of authority. So, authority should be delegated as to be equal to responsibility, consigned to the worker. The subordinate will accept the authority of a command, understand it, believe it and follow it in the interest of the organization. Non-living inanimate beings – machine, tool, capital – cannot be assigned task or responsibility. The word authority is used with different meanings as: A person with superior knowledge and skill is described as an authority in the sense of an expert. True Line personnel provide expert advice and guidance to staff personnel. It is the power of the superior to make decisions which guides the actions of his subordinates. There are technological limits on authority too. ‘Competence’ or ‘Personal Authority’ theory. Start studying Equal Opportunity Assignment 1. Likewise, only a person who is subordinate to the authority-holding person can be assigned task or responsibil­ity. “Authority is the character of a communication (order) in a formal organization, by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to, or member of, the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or not do, so far as the orga­nization is concerned.”, “Viewed internally with respect to the enterprise, responsibility may be defined as the obligation of a subordinate, to whom a superior has assigned a duty to perform a service required. (1) Exercise of authority drives staff of the organization to perform the tasks and responsibility assigned to them: Authority means the right to influence the behavior of others. To run the organization towards its goal and objectives the authority of the executive has to be re-delegated to the managers down the line to reach the bottom line managers. No subordinate can be ordered to do a job which is impossible to be performed due to biological limitations. This theory believes that the technical competence and personal competence are the basis of authority. Therefore responsibility cannot be delegated. Responsibility arises from superior subordinate relationships. Therefore, it becomes important that with every authority position an equal and opposite responsibility should be attached. Responsibility can be discharged by a single action or it may be a continuous obligation. In fact, authority comes only after a leader demonstrates responsibility. The important principle of authority is: Authority and responsibility should be equal. 2. 4. In an organisation responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform his duty as required by his superior. Authority – Responsibility Relationship: Authority and responsibility of a manager should be co-equal i.e. 6. Not all managers at that level, however, necessarily have equal authority and responsibility. This happens when he enjoys support and confidence of his followers because they see him as personification of their urges and aspirations. Responsibility has no meaning except as applied to a promotion. Delegation of authority to a subordinate will not relieve a manager from responsibility to perform his duties. 3. This principle avoids misuse of authority and at the same time helps in proper discharge of responsibility. In general, in business organizations, the authority is a result of the contractual agreement, under which the subordinate have agreed to perform certain services in return of monitory benefit. A manager who started working decades ago on a three-digit salary might have butterflies in stomach when he appoints staff on a salary many times exceeding his own when he had jointed the organization. Until and unless any performance is technically possible an order to do any such work would be unworthy. It is the means through which co-operative activity becomes a success and common objectives are achieved. The whole organisational structure is based on the concept of authority without use of authority, anarchy and utter confusion will prevail all around the enterprise Authority is usually respected, recognised and followed in the organisation as a matter of course. By Bill W. The Tradition of Alcoholics Anonymous in its present short form suggests that AA shall forever remain unorganized, that we may create special boards or committees to serve us -- never governmental in character. Authority must be equal to Responsibility. It changes with time, position and group behaviour of the subordinates etc. Laws, trade practices etc. Thus, the concept of authority arises from the chain, which ties together the sections emanating from different persons in the organization. Responsibility comes hand in hand with authority. Acceptance theory of authority is the exact opposite of the traditional, formal theory of authority. Respect­ing and serving elders in family and society is an age-old tradition, so is responsibility of parents to raise and properly educate and train children for life ahead. For example, shareholders of a company are the source of all legal authority to con­trol and manage its affairs. Accountability arises out of responsibility and responsibility arises out of authority. Concept Ten: Every service responsibility should be matched by an equal service authority — the scope of such authority to be always well defined whether by tradition, by resolution, by specific job description or by appropriate charters and bylaws. Content Guidelines 2. (2) Only person holding authority can make decisions: Decision-making is the main feature of authority. To sum up, the ultimate source of authority rests equally on legal, social and cultural norms that fulfill the test of validity and voluntary acceptance of authority by subordinates. may also impose certain limitations on the use of authority. 3. Top managers appoint senior and junior level managers and assign tasks and responsibility to them to perform and dele­gate them appropriate authority to operate and control the resources placed under their control. It is always considered to be the key to a successful Managerial job. Responsibility arises from the superior subordinate relationship, from the fact that a superior has the authority to get specific services from his subordinate. Since 1950 the term technical authority or computer authority has come into use. Authority is generally adopted with power to secure obedience. By mere his personality people seek his advice and obey it. For a while he forgets that under the current global business scenario, an efficient worker would stay only if his compensation package compares favorably with that of similarly qualified work­ers in other organizations. This customary acceptance of authority is a part of our culture and day- to-day behaviour. While the authority flows from a superior to a subordinate when assignment of duty is made, the responsibility flows from a subordinate to his superior when former undertakes the obligation of accomplishing the duties assigned to him. Delays in hiring: When your dream offer takes ages to reach you ! Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform the work assigned to him by his superior. These units must be structured together and their efforts directed towards attaining the goals of the enterprise. The Board, on its part, selects and appoints staff that will help it accom­plish the tasks and responsibility necessary to achieve organizational goals. The essence of responsibility is obligation to perform the assigned duty or task. The manager describes organizational relationships in a written and graphic manner. Legal authority or social or cultural norms become irrele­vant here. Responsibility moves in the upward control from subordinate to superior. The authority is power to command or to exact action from others in the process of discharging the delegated responsibility. The command that women should not teach or have authority over the men of the church (1 Timothy 2:12) is really one command, not two. When such an event occurs, the person assuming authority to meet the particular circumstances is said to have derived the authority of the situation. In other words required amount of authority should be delegated to discharge responsibility. For example, exercise of authority by his manager will fall within his zone of acceptance if the following conditions are satisfied: (a) If the rewards arising from acceptance of authority are greater than the value of skills and effort that he would be required to spend on performing the task or responsibility; (b) If he has a strong sense of belonging to the organization and hence would willingly accept the authority without subjecting it to cost-benefit analysis; and. Responsibility is the most misunderstood term in the literature of management. It is the authority a person enjoys by virtue of his superior position in the organisation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The informal structure refers to the social groups or friendships which people working together may form. A person with extraor­dinary characteristics (charisma) exercises authority over his followers, even though the followers are neither bound by any law or tradition to do so. It is exacted upwards whereas authority flows downwards. 4. It seems logical and obvious that employees should always have the authority to act. He tells the participants to do certain things in a specified manner, to obey orders from designated individuals, and to work co-operatively with others. The term Responsibility is, most of the times, used to mean duty, activity, liability, accountability or even authority. Accountability will shrink or expand with the nature of responsibility assigned. (b) The objective aspect that is the character in the communication by virtue of which it is accepted. Then, it assigns tasks and responsibility to the staff, based on their competence levels. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! 1. The degree of a manager’s authority varies from company to company. It is the power or the right to act, to command or to extract action by others. Such authority stems the decision making power granted to the processed data by a computer. The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. If the authority is more than responsibility then chances are that a manager may misuse it. Every manager at any level in the organisation, must respect the laws, traditions and restrictions etc. Clear identification of responsibility limits. Accountability means an obligation on the part of a person to account for, or explain, why the task or responsibility assigned to him has not been performed as desired. A building or machine etc. As … This means that a subordinate will accept authority only if it falls within his zone of acceptance. Share Your Word File Accordingly manager has no authority until it is conferred upon him by his sub-ordinates. – Thought Paper, Avoiding mistakes in organizing by planning. The process of organization brings relationships among employees at different levels, materials, money and machines. In a business organization a manager is vested with official and legal authority which empowers him to assign tasks and responsibility to his subordinates and demand accountability from them in respect of performance of those tasks and responsibility. Principle of Parity of Authority and Responsibility: Authority and responsibility must be co-extensive. Getting things done by people is not possible without compliance on the part of subordinates and the authority which ensures compliance. – Henry Fayol, “Authority is the official and the legal right to command action by others and to enforce compliance. – Koontz and O’Donnell. From the above definitions, two points become clear that the possessor of authority influences the activity and behaviour of other individuals or groups and that he has the right to issue orders and ensure their compliance by subordinates. Every civilized society follows certain traditions and carefully protects and preserves them. Delegation of authority establishes relationships. A COMMAND CLIMATE ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE CONDUCTED AT WHAT MIN FREQ ... coordinating a comprehensive safety program based on the objectives of the CO is the responsibility of what authority. Exit Formalities : When your employer is not ready to relieve you from your services! So a manager while using authority, must keep in his mind, the reaction of his orders on employees, shareholders and customers etc. Privacy Policy3. Koontz and O’ Donnel define it as the obligation of a subordinate, to whom a superior has assigned a task and dele­gated authority, to perform the task as required. This theory is very simple, because the followers of this theory believe that the authority flows to a manager through acceptance by his subordinates of his power to make and implement decisions. Authority and responsibility of a manager should be co-equal i.e. Responsibility is closely related to authority. A manager is responsible for the performance of the duties even though he may delegate to a subordinate authority to accomplish a service and the subordinate also in his turn may delegate a part of his authority received by him. The extent of delegation of authority also restricts the authority of a manager. Responsibility typically moves upward, meaning a subordinate employee is given responsibility for a task by a supervisor. As Chester I. Bernard writes that “Authority is the character of communication (order) in a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to or member of the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or is not to do so fare as the organization is concerned”. iii. Hence, is called functional derivative. 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