Influences of other languages are comparatively minor. <> During the course of over six hundred years of the Ottoman Empire (c. 12991922), the literary and official language of the empire was a mixture of Turkish, Persian and Arabic, which differed considerably from the everyday spoken Turkish of the time, and is termed Ottoman Turkish. These are often recognizable by the initial Arabic article a(l)-, and include common words such as aldeia "village" from a-cah, alface "lettuce" from al-khass, armazm "warehouse" from al-makhzan, and azeite "olive oil" from az-zayt. At first glance, the Arabic and English languages seem as far apart in composition as the regions themselves are on a map. According to linguist and Arabic historian Kees Versteegh, there were borrowings from Persian, Greek, and Aramaic in the Quran and in pre-Islamic poetry. Swahili has been greatly influenced by Arabic; there are an enormous number of Arabic loanwords in the language, including the word swahili, from Arabic sawil (a plural adjectival form of an Arabic word meaning of the coast). In fact, the culture of the Spain was also influenced, as the Moors introduced several cultural i As the power of the Byzantine Empire waned, Sicily was progressively conquered by Muslims from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. The Spanish language has been influenced by Arabic as a result of the long Islamic presence within the Iberian Peninsula, beginning with the Islamic conquest in 711-718 AD until the conquest of the last Islamic Kingdom in 1492 AD. endobj This video is about the influence of the Arabic language on Spanish and Portuguese, mainly due to Islamic rule in Al-Andalus. Other languages such as Maltese[1] and Nubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary. The Arabic language has had a tremendous influence on the shaping and development of the modern Middle East. Modern day Spanish, also called Castilian, gradually evolved from Vulgar Latin centuries after the Muslim conquest and was thus influenced by Arabic from its inception. 0000002058 00000 n The majority religion of the Middle East is Islam; the largest minority religion is Christianity. In the newer translations this practice is discontinued. One of the primary routes that they have entered other languages is via the Spanish language, heavily influenced by the Arabic of al-Andalus. The English word alcohol comes from the Arabic word al kohl. 0000002395 00000 n Their primary goal was Arabization, expanding the influence of the Arab language and culture, which they started in 1962. The Coptic language had an influence in its development before other influences came into play, such as English, French, Italian, Turkish and Turkish/Ottoman languages. F4E=ze:P0']5u/s:8tuCS70Omj sD6Sy~GyEg)911CI>c"j{P|7 Many words were borrowed from the Arab world at a time when its influence was paramount and its realm was far-spread. There are over 3,000 basic words, along with perhaps some 4,000 derivatives, of Arabic origin or transmitted through Arabic in the English language. Examples are "information" to mean the imparting or acquisition of knowledge (Arabic taawwur, mental impression or representation, from a root meaning "form") and "intention" (Arabic macn, meaning). An Arab regards literary Italys language has been globally popularised through art, culture and food, but it would not exist as we know it if not for the influence of Arabic culture. The Arabic influence can be seen in hundreds of toponyms but with a few minor exceptions, its influence on Spanish is primarily lexical. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Islamic presence within the Iberian Peninsula, replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin, Maltese language - Britannica Online Encyclopedia, "bishop | Origin and meaning of bishop by Online Etymology Dictionary", http://ler.letras.up.pt/uploads/ficheiros/6410.pdf, "Influncia rabe na Evoluo da Lngua Nacional - Infopdia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Influence_of_Arabic_on_other_languages&oldid=989505782, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 10:58. The Latin dialect that eventually became Spanish was highly influenced by the invasion of the Arabic <>stream 110 0 obj x}SMo0+rJ (8Cc;M;`:PvHDvIvx=U,T5/E0 '80!gM~&Uk1H=aD#%/] P#I z*bMVJ=se[cam }W0?PB Arabization promoted a single, unifying national language at the expense of the other spoken registers in Morocco; in other words, at the expense of Moroccans, this language policy implementation has limited the prospects of The majority of these words are nouns, with a more limited number of verbs, adjectives, adverbs and one preposition. French also experienced some influence from Gaulish, with regards to vocabulary and phonemes. endobj 125 0 obj <]/Prev 367201>> The Arabic language influence is noticeable in around 800 Sicilian words, many of which relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). A more indirect form of influence is the use of certain Latinate words in an unclassical sense, derived from their use in Latin translations of medieval Arabic philosophical works (e.g. Al is the definite article in Arabic and the Spanish language If there is something that differentiates Spanish from the other romance languages, like French or Italian, it is the abundance of elements that come from Arabic. 0000001885 00000 n 109 0 obj A small number of Arabic terms have entered mainstream French as a result of immigration from North Africa which began after the independence of Algeria. ?uw!4lJmFd&6iIe!J9="6Hoaz+EN2. About 4,000 words of Arabic origin or influenced by Arabic are found in the regional varieties of Spanish, which can be heard if you are to travel around the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In AD 535, Emperor Justinian I made Sicily a Byzantine province, and for the second time in Sicilian history, the Greek language became a familiar sound across the island (Hull, 1989). Arabic and Other Influences on the Spanish Language By: Jessamyn Snider, Cochise Community College Student will view the presentation designed by the professor on the cultural and linguistic influence of Arabic on Spanish (See Powerpoint Arabic in Spanish). 0000004588 00000 n For example, aceituna and oliva (olive), alacrn and escorpin (scorpion), jaqueca and migraa (headache) or alcanca and hucha (piggy bank). I forgot about the Frankish influence on the language. <> Among them is every-day vocabulary like "sugar" (sukkar), "cotton" (qun) or "magazine" (mazin). In the Middle Ages, Spanish was the main route by which Arabic words entered other West European languages. 116 0 obj endobj Arabic words in Interlingua include "algebra", "alcohol", "cifra" (cypher), "magazin", "sucro" (sugar), "zenit", and "zero". One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents. 0000000676 00000 n Some examples include (Versteegh,2001,p.60): 0000065320 00000 n endobj Such arabisms, are accepted within the local context but would not normally be known by non-maghrebi French speakers. endstream (Giarrizzo). endobj The official language of Egypt is Arabic, and most Egyptians speak one of several vernacular dialects of that language. For the better part of two centuries, Egypt, despite only resting under French control for a few brief years and for more than sixty years placed under English domination, was a privileged land for the French language, which reached the statue of being co-official with Arabic. Most people speak Moroccan Arabic a mixture of Arabic and Amazigh infused with French and Spanish influences. 107 0 obj Among European languages, these mostly were transmitted through Spanish and Turkish. M`[l PKa37#" M]:9Y Iety!b:TXuPGqi.hScND/Cle$ANM6 ;f(> E:5: Z"2X 111 0 obj 0000002996 00000 n At first glance, the Arabic and English languages seem as far apart in composition as the regions themselves are on a map. Here's a list of some of our favorite Spanish words with Arabic origin: I know French had Gaulish influence but Spanish and Portuguese had a significant Arabic influence on these languages. The Arab influence is more evident in the southern part of the peninsula. If youre intrigued by the French language, youll love learning more about the history of the official language of France. 0000065571 00000 n French tutors educated members of the royal family, and French remained a language of Many of these words entered Interlingua's vocabulary through Spanish. Perhaps the easiest way to see this influence in Spanish is in the simple words spoken every day. However, these Arabic words typically have native Austronesian or Sanskrit alternatives: pikir = galih, idhp (Austronesian) and manah, cipta, or cita (from Sanskrit); badan = awak (Austronesian) and slira, sarira, or angga (from Sanskrit); and mripat = mata (Austronesian and Tagalog [Philippines]) and soca or netra (from Sanskrit). |Kc]Wgnm @a. ABAo37JJReFRAhbM6tnk5:i'8~yZOV0J?ltQ>n~wM3~}DxWa31^fufD PTW#"M1q I)Aitpd:,3<7oDQ-" >WTN4yJUi5g53v?1Q-2{psd[ r~U+;W,_tEY_3]. In the case of Morocco, the colonial influence of the French was difficult to mediate; despite the adoption of the Arabisation project, few classroom teachers embraced Arabic as the language of instruction. Sicilian words of Arabic origin include azzizzari (to embellish, from cazz; precious, beautiful), cafisu (measure for liquids, from qafiz), gbbia (artificial pond, from gabiya), giuggiulena (sesame seed, from giulgiulan, risi (leader, from ra's), saia (canal, from saqiya), and zibbibbu (a type of grape, from zabib). Arabic influence in the region did not end with language. 0000002110 00000 n endobj It wasnt highly influenced, but Coptic did have a lexical (vocabulary) influence on Egyptian Arabic, meaning that there are words that exist in the dialect which can be traced to Coptic. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. 114 0 obj Words of Arabic origin include dunia (from Arabic: dunya = the present world), Sabtu (from Arabic: as-sabt = Saturday), khabar or kabar ( abar = news), selamat/salam ( salm = a greeting), Jumaat or Jumat ( al-juma = Friday), ijazah ( ijza = vacation), kitab ( kitb = book), tertib ( tartb = orderly) and kamus ( qms = dictionary). From Arabic came also the grammatically peculiar word oxal "God willing". X`,q@jPAE Here are the ways French has helped transform modern English. 9. 118 0 obj For example, the Arabic word for book (, kitb) is used in most of the languages listed. <>stream 4 M7C !AB !AB !ABZMrs} A !ABTK+T*|4J=i)e,-P*iwPW*/*& Id Op2%*i0-T QSEN endobj 0000065973 00000 n https://bilingua.io/a-deep-look-into-arabic-influence-on-spanish The multiple linguistic influences on Ottoman Turkish caused difficulties in spelling and writing. trailer A major difference that affects the sound and flow of the two languages is 10. The terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taallit, "prayer" < salat), academic terms (like Uyghur mentiq, "logic"), to everyday conjunctions (like Hindi/Urdu lekin, "but"). Besides the uncountable place names that exist, all the languages in Spain have been influenced by Arabic. Which is English? %%EOF French is widely spoken as a second language in France's former colonies in the Maghreb. 115 0 obj Although the native population spoke the Lusitanian-Mozarabic, they kept some Mozarabic-derived words. It is estimated that there are over two thousand Arabic loanwords and three thousand derivatives in the Spanish dictionary, making it 8% of the Spanish language. 0000001590 00000 n endstream 0000002162 00000 n >|%G#6}@fvM&| Languages. 119 0 obj x}|owd~,aw @lH ExC|%V *hZ* .hm*-mZo{?=s9,I FDQ Consonants American English 12-18 Standard Arabic 3:3 + 2 American English 20 Standard Arabic 27-28 Vowels 8. The term imam (from Arabic: imm = leader, prayer leader) is used to translate a Catholic priest, beside its more common association with an Islamic prayer leader. Languages. mOj-uys$H,i]6Mty/7{.zo"jWQ[Og>. nj5hQzQDs66ky(Wu$g~V5q/a{L(/[m}xbsU {7;5F4H>J{VNPO:{rt4{ z[6UjjH&&AM7QC+DL*hb-L\'TEB9F}teeVe=Wz;&P{Z-GJ lp]4\ze(< `8^ rH.n/IE)(K$di|:ti}!. Fatiha Sadouki . Their primary goal was Arabization, expanding the influence of the Arab language and culture, which they started in 1962. :kw.w";h]H;Q)a>OiS~Sx8^OM7VMy95TXsLv*J}5 [250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 0 564 0 444 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 722 611 333 0 333 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500] The Influence of French on Learning English Vocabulary for L1 Arabic Speakers. However, the influence of the Arabic language on certain English words should not be overlooked as it gives a valuable insight into our shared history. Dozens of Arabic words occur in Interlingua, frequently because their co-occurrence in such languages as English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese can be used to verify their internationality. endobj People living in what is now Spain spoke Latin at one time, but over the centuries, Spanish and other Romance languages (such as French and Italian) gradually differentiated themselves. Therefore, the list of words that are used or incorporated into the French spoken in this region (as a result of code-switching, convenience or lack of an equivalent term in standard French) is potentially endless. Sicilian (Sicilian: sicilianu, pronounced [siiljanu]; Italian: siciliano) is a Romance language that is spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands. A third factor is the close association between the Arabic language and the glorious Arab past. 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