https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00001.2019. Phosphate plays a central role in the process of mineralization, normal serum levels being associated with appropriate bone mineralization, while high and low serum levels are associated with soft tissue calcification. The formation and accumulation of methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, vascular complications of diabetes, and several other age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and disorders of the central nervous system. Cover: Astrocytes are a class of neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that sustain homeostasis and provide for defense of the central nervous system [CNS].Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in form and function and demonstrate remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS development and ageing. Physical Review Fluids (PRFluids) is dedicated to publishing innovative research that will significantly advance the fundamental understanding of fluid dynamics. Each whisker is individually represented in the somatotopic map of wS1 by an anatomical unit named a ‘barrel’ (hence also called barrel cortex). 2019 Impact Factor. Editor in Chief, Michael Thoennessen, celebrates the 50th anniversary of Physical Review A, B, C, and D. The year 2020 marks Physical Review C ’s 50 th anniversary. In particular, three experimental approaches are now feasible due to DNA targeting tools, namely, activation and/or repression of master transcription factors in their endogenous chromatin context; targeting transcription factors to endogenous, alternative, or inaccessible sites; and finally, functional manipulation of the chromatin context. Finally, we present the latest advances regarding therapeutic strategies targeting CAFs that are undergoing preclinical and clinical evaluation. On this occasion, the editors launch a collection of select papers. If it stops, so does life. Phosphate is also a component of high-energy compounds (i.e., AMP, ADP, and ATP) and essential for nucleic acid helical structure (i.e., RNA and DNA). Their work later fell into oblivion, also because so little was known about the immune system’s function and even less about the underlying mechanisms of how learning, a central nervous system activity, could affect peripheral immune responses. Publication Fee Our journal is turning from Page Charges to the Article Processing Charges (APCs) for papers which will be published in 2021. Annual Reviews Rankings in Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics) 2020 Release of Journal Citation Reports. Physiological Reports is an online, open access monthly journal that publishes peer-reviewed research across all areas of basic and translational physiology and allied disciplines.Case reports are acceptable, so long as they have a physiological focus, but Physiological Reports does not publish clinical trials.For further information, see the journal's full scope statement. Physiological Reviews Jan 2018 1-557. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is derived from T4 and competes with binding of T4 to the integrin. Important aspects of whisker sensation are thought to result from neuronal computations in the whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1). The serum concentration of phosphate and the total body content of phosphate are highly regulated, a process that is accomplished by the coordinated effort of two families of sodium-dependent transporter proteins. This review attempts to integrate the available data while also identifying areas of missing information. The observation that associative learning processes can modify peripheral immune functions was first reported and investigated by Ivan Petrovic Pavlov and his co-workers. The annual JCR impact factor is a ratio between citations and recent citable items published. A possible role for K+ in chronic kidney disease is also emerging, as epidemiological data reveal associations between higher urinary K+ excretion and improved renal outcomes. Although genes with the potential to influence cell states are known, the historic dependency on methods that manipulate gene expression outside the endogenous chromatin context has prevented us from understanding how cells organize, interpret, and protect cellular programs. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00033.2018. 2019 Impact Factor. 5.893 Impact Factor. The receptor requires further characterization in terms of contributions to nonmalignant cells, such as platelets and phagocytes. Both isoforms of the SLC20 family exhibit ubiquitous expression (with some variation as to which one or both are expressed), are regulated by ambient phosphate, and likely serve the phosphate needs of the individual cell. MGO is the major precursor of nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and DNA, subsequently leading to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). As the premier journal in the interrelated areas of statistical, nonlinear, biological, and soft matter physics, PRE covers recent developments in complex fluids, polymers, liquid crystals, and granular materials. These may have positive or negative effects on COVID-19 disease progression. Impact Factor: 5.440 ℹ Impact Factor: 2019: 5.440 The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. Physiological Reviews Jan 2020 1-488. The three isoforms of the SLC34 family (SLC34A1–A3) show very restricted tissue expression and regulate intestinal absorption and renal excretion of phosphate. The major aims of this review are to provide an overview on the immune system in cancer; to position oxygen shortage and metabolic competition as the ground of a restrictive TME and as important players in the anti-tumor immune response; to define how immunotherapies affect hypoxia/oxygen delivery and the metabolic landscape of the tumor; and vice versa, how oxygen and metabolites within the TME impinge on the success of immunotherapies. A Community of Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00048.2019. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of two key aspects of ribbon synapses: 1) their mechanisms of exocytosis and endocytosis and 2) their molecular anatomy and physiology. Physiological Reviews provides state of the art coverage of timely issues in the physiological and biomedical sciences. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00024.2020. A major obstacle to preventing, treating, or reverting chronic pain has been that the nature of neural circuits underlying the diverse components of the complex, multidimensional experience of pain is not well understood. MGO is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis and, under physiological circumstances, detoxified by the glyoxalase system. Molecular oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the primary gaseous substrate and product of oxidative phosphorylation in respiring organisms, respectively. Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2020) 5-Year Impact Factor: 7.074 ℹ Five-Year Impact Factor: 2019: 7.074 The forebrain and in particular the basal ganglia are involved in determining which motor programs should be recruited at a given point of time and can both initiate and stop locomotor activity. 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