Comma After a Short Introductory Phrase . However, if it is at the beginning of a dependent clause, you can skip the comma. These always require a comma. Expressions such as coupled with, as well as, along with, together with, not to mention, and others do not act as coordinating conjunctions. "coupled with, as well as, along with, together with, not to mention." Try switching out the word so with either therefore or so that. Use a comma after a conjunction to provide balance. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. A dependent clause needs the other clause to work as a sentence. if you are using it to mark a shift of thought in the middle of a sentence like in the example: But it’s not needed at the end of the sentence: Brackets vs. Parentheses: How to Use Them. John was exhausted after the race. That means that if the only comma your sentence is going to have is the one you put in after the initial conjunction, you should remove it. I have two good reasons:First, I recently had a group critique the first chapter of my novel, and some of them gave advice on comma usage. P … This hotly debated punctuation mark known as the serial comma is also often called the Oxford comma or the Harvard comma. If so, add a comma like we did in this example: Did you use a relative pronoun like who, whom, which, what (or one of their compounds -ever or -soever) with a clause that is essential for identification? An independent clause can function on its own without the rest of the phrase. English term or phrase: comma after "both" In a sentence like this one: "The user can use both mouse and space bar to select the desired option" -- should there be a comma or a colon after "both"? I got an e-mail from a reader named Mike who had a question about the sentence “Soon I will go to the office,” which I had used as an example in a piece I wrote. There are seven total: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. punctuation used to mark a division in a sentence, like the separation of words, phrases, a clause, or a sequence. Rule 1. When we turned off the lights is the dependent adverbial clause, and the mouse returned is an independent clause. It is grammatically correct in compound sentences (sentences composed of two shorter sentences merged together) such as "the dog barked, and the cat ran away." If so, then you do not need to add a comma. The second half, which was following 10 feet behind us, is a dependent clause, because it cannot be its own sentence. But it is not because "along with Mr. and Mrs. Brown" turned it into a plural subject. A dependent adverbial clause, or subordinate adverbial clause, is a clause that also acts as, or modifies, an adverb. . The space needed after these punctuation marks is proportioned automatically.” Originally, typewriters had monospaced fonts (skinny letters and fat letters took up the same amount of space), … After the race, John was exhausted. Still unsure if you should use a comma? That's because, as you said it correctly, it replaces a comma so you don't need to put it again.. An em-dash may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought.. Grammarbook gives us an example of em-dash replacing comma: In English, when you join two complete sentences with the conjunctions and, or, but, nor, yet, so, or for, place a comma before the conjunction. There are several types of introductory phrases, including prepositional phrases and appositive phrases. Fun fact: the conjunctions even though, whereas, though, and although do take a comma when they are part of a dependent adverbial clause that follows an independent clause. Consider commas as a bit of shorthand that communicates information to readers. Did you use a coordinating conjunction like and, but, and or to link two independent clauses? As for the word too, it all depends on the emphasis you are looking for. Mike wanted to know “Shouldn't there be a comma after soon?” Sure. Adding a comma after "development" eliminates potential ambiguity about the number and descriptions of the last entities mentioned. (A comma is expected after an introductory adverbial phrase.) The writer who wrote this article has a cold. However, if it is at the beginning of a dependent clause, you can skip the comma. Expressions such as coupled with, as well as, along with, together with, not to mention, and others do not act as coordinating conjunctions. Please notify the people in charge of security, operations, IT, legal affairs, internal and external communications, employee recruitment and retention, research and development, and marketing and advertising. Similar to what had happened in the Tower of Daltigoth, the mages gathered in the stronghold’s Heartchamber. Commas are used to separate list items. STANDS4 LLC, 2020. A. Chicago style would omit the comma after “oranges,” and we would omit the period near the end, and we allow only one colon per sentence, and we would not allow the final exclamation mark, and I seriously doubt that any editor here would let a sentence like that into a book—but otherwise, your styling is perfect. It cannot stand alone as its own sentence, so dependent adverbial clauses must be used as part of a larger sentence structure that contains an independent clause. The general rule for subordinating conjunctions states that you shouldn't use a comma before a subordinating conjunction that comes after the main clause. However, "whereas" and "although" are examples of "adverbs of concession," along with "though" and "even though". These are the words that can connect two independent clauses. The use or omission of the comma is well established, and writers need only to apply the rules. Second, my After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages. After all that, how do you know when two clauses need a comma to separate them, and when you can do without? A comma comes after each noun in a list. We truly appreciate your support. Swan's PEU describes this. That means that if the only comma your sentence is going to have is the one you put in after the initial conjunction, you should remove it. “We drove to the beach, but we left since the parking lot was full.” One of the most common comma placement errors is the usage of a comma after a conjunction rather than before: “Nancy’s schedule was very busy but, … Conjunctive adverbs are words such as “however,” “therefore,” and “indeed,” and they "usually show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships" (1). Examples of the comma before and, so, yet and or. Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! The mouse returned when we turned off the lights. The trick is knowing how to properly use commas and conjunctions together. (which means “that is” or “in other words”, from Latin id est) and e.g. If so, add a comma as in this example: (or any other non-conjunctions that are joining clauses mid-sentence)? Now the reason for having the comma, after the abrupt interruptional phrase, is because the phrase "If you are looking for someone who is willing to take on the challeges to overcome obstacles" is an introductory phrase. Consider this: We visited the Louvre. This cheat sheet will help explain exactly when commas and conjunctions should be used together, and why it matters (without—we hope—putting you into a comma-induced coma). Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. For example, “I have a big test tomorrow; therefore, I can't go out tonight.” (The comma after the conjunctive adverb is optional.) An easy way to remember all seven is by using the acronym FANBOYS. Introductory clause: After the meeting was over, the staff was exhausted. Susan loves her cat, and she lets it sleep in her bed. Then, we moved on to Madrid and the Prado. Since either way works, you do not need a comma. , the rule of thumb is that if it begins your independent clause, there should be a comma. Transition words and phrases are the ways that you link together ideas within your writing. Sometimes a comma is necessary after an introductory phrase. Click here for the beginning of that discussion. You Can Drop the Comma after a One-word "Introduction" When a fronted adverbial is just one word (e.g., "Yesterday," "Here," "Now"), it is a common practice to drop the comma. Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! 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